How To Interface PIR Sensor With Arduino

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Hello Arduinians... Ever thought of detecting motion via your Arduino.... if yes, then this one's for you. In this tutorial, We're interfacing PIR sensor today with Arduino. Let's gets started!

Block Diagram
Working of PIR Motion Sensor
Block Diagram
Components Required For This Tutorials
  1. 1 * Arduino Board
  2. 1 * PIR Motion Sensor(you can buy from here)  
  3. Breadboard
  4. Jumper wires
  5. Battery

What is PIR motion sensor & how it works?

Basically, a PIR stands for "Passive Infrared Sensor". The sensor works on the principle of infrared waves' detection those are being emitted by human bodies. They are undetectable to us but can be discovered by the devices designed for such special purposes. I'm going to go just a little deep, enough to make you understand the internal operation.
When a body moves in front of a PIR sensor, the temperature of that place changes where the body has moved. If the body makes a further movement, the composition of infrared waves being received by the PIR from that region changes and since the reading is not the same as last reading, it generates a signal for the microcontroller and we work on it accordingly.


Circuit Diagram
We can easily interface PIR motion sensor with Arduino-like our other sensor. But it all depends on our logic of the code, how efficiently do we want to detect motion through it.
A PIR has 3 pins, just like any other sensor, Vcc, Signal & Ground pin. A very simple circuit of interfacing PIR motion sensor with Arduino is shown below
circuit diagram of PIR Motion Sensor
Circuit 
PIR Motion Sensor description
                                                                                          PIR Motion Sensor                                          
The 2 knobs are there too. One for adjusting sensitivity by increasing or decreasing the range of motion detection and another one for response delay. If you're using PIR in your home security, I strongly suggest you set the range at maximum (towards right). However, the detection range offered by a PIR sensor is good enough, like about 6 metres as I've tested it successfully.

Source Code
Here is a very simple code for this tutorial which only detects if there is ANY motion and triggers an LED for confirmation.Write below code into Arduino IDE and compile it.

int pirSensor=5;                                                     // connect sensor at pin 5
int led=13;                                                             // connect led at pin 13
void setup() 
{
   Serial.begin(9600);                                             // initialize serial
   pinMode(led, OUTPUT);                                  //  initialize led as output
   pinMode(pirSensor, INPUT);                            //  initialize sensor as input  
}

void loop() 
{
  int sensorValue = digitalRead(sensor);                // read sensor value
  Serial.println(sensorValue);                                 // print sensor value  
  delay(100);                                                          //  delay 100 miliseconds
  if(sensorValue > 600)
  { digitalWrite(led,HIGH); }
}

Now you can connect the signal pin to any analog pin also but for that, you'll have to check what values do you get on the serial monitor and which value do you wish to use as a threshold for triggering any LED, buzzer, etc.
Note that the sensor first takes some time for its calibration and after that it starts detecting motion. If any motion is detected, it triggers the LED on Arduino board and keeps searching for the motion for a certain amount of time. It only settles low if there is no further motion detected for that given search period (which can be changed in code). Giving a search window to your sensor, makes it's working more efficient and there are better chances for you to get non-erroneous functioning.
I too did both codes and both worked fine for me. Here's a snap!
PIR motion sensor circuit
Demo
So that's an end to our tutorial  for this time. Hope you enjoyed reading. If you liked this tutorial then don't forget it to share with your friends. I'll be back with more..... till then #happyDIYing

If you have any question or query or feedback regarding this tutorial then leave a comment below and we will solve those as soon as possible.

Learn How To Make A Digital Voltmeter Using Arduino

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Arduino is very popular and easy to use. With Arduino, we can do lot's of projects and experiment. So today we add one more projects in our Arduino project list. In this article, we are going to make a digital voltmeter.using an Arduino board. In this project, we measure the input voltage range between 0 to 50V by using the voltage divider. It is very simple to use Arduino as a voltmeter. Arduino UNO has  5 analog pin to read the input analog value. If we have an idea about reference voltage then we can easily measure the input voltage. Here we will use 5V as a reference voltage.
Block Diagram
arduino based dc voltmeter circuit diagram
Block Diagram of DC Voltmeter
Component Required 
  1. 1 * Arduino Board(In this article we use Arduino UNO)
  2. 1 * LCD Module(Here we will use 16 * 2 LCD Module)
  3. 1 * 100K Resistor 
  4. 1* 10K Resistor
  5. 1 * 5K Potentiometer
  6. Some jumper wires
  7. Breadboard 
Circuit Diagram
Circuit diagram of this projects is very simple and easy to understand. Here we use a 16 * 2 LCD module to display the voltage. Read this article to learn How To Interface LCD With Arduino UNO.
arduino based DC Voltmeter circuit
Circuit Diagram
A voltage divider circuit is used here to divide the input voltage by the range  of Arduino board. As we all know that Arduino is compatible with till 5v only. Above this voltage, our Arduino may be damaged.
Analog input pin on the Arduino board measure the input voltage and convert it into digital format by using inbuilt ADC(analog to digital converter) that can be processed  by Arduino and then display it on LCD. In this project, we fed input voltage to analog pin A0 of Arduino by using the voltage divider circuit. A simple voltage divider circuit is made by using one 100kohm and one 10kohm resistor to make the 1:11 divider. Thus, by using this voltage divider circuit we can measure the voltage up to 55V.                      
         Voltage divider output  Vout  = Vin * ( R2/(R1+R2) )
It is good if you use this voltmeter project to measure the voltage within range 0v to 35v. Because large voltage may be damaged your Arduino board. 

Code 
In this project, we use inbuilt liquid crystal library for the display of voltage value and analogRead() function to read the input voltage at the analog pin A0. Here our reference voltage is 5V, hence we multiply read value with 5 and then divide it with 1024 to obtain the actual voltage. Then by using the voltage divider formula we can decrease this value within the range of Arduino board voltage.


Video Demonstration 

A Guide For Interfacing Analog Sensors With Arduino

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With Arduino, almost everything seems to be too friendly when it comes to interfacing various sensors, shields, add-ons or any other utility devices. Just because the Arduino coding environment is so user-friendly, anyone can do it. So in this post, I will just show you how to hook up your sensors to Arduino and get them running. Let's start with the very basics....

sensor interfacing with arduino
Sensors
What is Sensor
Sensors are those electronic components which convert physical data into electronic data. This data is in analog format and is fed to the microcontroller on the Arduino board. The microcontroller has inbuilt ADCs (Analog-2-Digital Converter) which processes this data and converts it into digital format.

And once you have received the (electronically converted) physical data, you can make your Arduino perform as you want.


On your Arduino board, there are analog pins named as A0, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5. The number of these pins may vary depending on your Arduino board. For UNO, there are only 6 analog pins while for MEGA there are 16. And remember this thing, any sensor (or other components) that gives analog data and you wish to process it, you'll have to connect it to your analog pins only. For now, I would say SENSORS would always be connected to analog pins.

Connection of Analog Sensor with Arduino
All sensors have their own method to connect with Arduino. Some of them need pull-up resistors, some need a certain power supply to use them.  But any sensor has generally 3 pins to connect to Arduino or other development board. These pins are. 
1. +Vcc
2. Signal
3. Gnd
Hook up the +Vcc to 5v (or 3.3v if sensor demands it) on your Arduino board.
Connect the Gnd pin to Ground pin on your Arduino.
Connect the Signal pin to any of your Arduino's analog pins. In our case, say A1.

Code for Interfacing Analog Sensor with Arduino
Below code is general code for interfacing analog sensors with Arduino. Write this code in your Arduino IDE to start playing with analog sensors.
void setup()
 {
  Serial.begin(9600);                            // initialize serial communication at 9600 bits per second:
  }

void loop() 
{
  int sensorValue = analogRead(A1);            // read the input on analog pin 1:
  Serial.println(sensorValue);                       // print out the value you read:
  delay(1);                                                      //this  delay in between reads for stability 
}

After burning this code to your Arduino, open the serial monitor and see the analog-2-digital converted data on your serial terminal. Basically, it is 10-bit data since the inbuilt ADC of your Arduino is a 10bit ADC.You will get the reading on your serial monitor.

That's all for now. Hope you got everything out of that blog.I'll try to bring something new next time. Till then........ keep learning and keep prototyping.

If You have got any problem or feedback then comment below. I will be right back to you soon.

Automatic Street Light Controller Circuit Using LDR And 555 Timer IC

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We are living in the world where everything goes to be automatic from your washing machine to your ceiling fan. Street lights are one of those examples of the automatic world. Automatic street light are those light which needs no manual operation to gets turn ON and turn OFF. Did you ever try to make such kind of street lights that gets turn ON and turns OFF automatically? In this article, we are going to make automatic street light using LDR and 555 timer IC.

List of Components  
  1. 555 Timer IC
  2. LDR
  3. LED
  4. Potentiometer
  5. Resistor 1* 1k ohm 
  6. Resistor 1* 220 ohm
  7. 9V Battery
  8. Printed Circuit Board(PCB) Or BreadBoard 
Circuit Diagram
A very simple circuit diagram of automatic street light is given below. 
automatic street light controller circuit using ldr
Automatic Street Light Controller Circuit

Principle and Working of Automatic Street Light Controller

555 Timer IC is the main part of the circuit that works as a comparator. All the working of this circuit depends on the working of the 555 timers Ic.To know more about 555 times IC read this article Working of 555 Timer IC. In this circuit pin, 3 produce output which has just two states high and low. Output goes to high when  trigger pin  is at a lower level than the 1/3rd level of the power supply voltage and output goes low when trigger pin 2 is at above then 1/3rd  of the power supply voltage. In this circuit pin, 4,6 and 8 are connected to the power supply. Here we use LDR to detect the presence of light which is formed a potential divider circuit with the help of 1k ohms resistor. LDR is a special type of resistor whose value depends on the light. Read this article to know How LDR Works. The output of this divider circuit is given to trigger pin of the 555 timer IC. 

In this circuit, we use a simple LED to know how the whole circuit works. You can also connect as much led as you want by using the transistor or you can connect a Relay to control high voltage electrical bulbs. 

You must use caution while connecting Relay to this circuit because its may be danger and as different bulb have different wattage.

Video Demonstration of Automatic Street Light Controller



Atmel AVR Studio - Download and Install

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In the previous article, we learn why AVR microcontrollers are so popular for designing embedded system projects. We have got the basic knowledge of ATmega16 Pin description and other required data through its datasheet. Now we can move forward to code our microcontroller. So In this article, we are going to install and setup the Atmel studio.
installing atmel studio
 Source: ATMEL

HOW TO INSTALL ATMEL STUDIO 


Those who have been using an earlier version of Atmel studio can realize that there are not so much difference between the new version of Atmel studio except the awesome UI. To download the atmel studio first you have to go to the atmel website or simply click here. There you may see two option for downloading atmel studio like this:
Software                   Description
    
     1                          Atmel studio (latest version name) eg. Atmel studio 7.0 (build 634) web installer                                   (recommended)
                                  2.38 MB, Required internet access during installation 

     2                          Atmel studio 7.0 (build 634) offline installer 
                                 734 MB, No internet access required during installation

Click any one option that you want to install and register your email id as a guest user or create an atmel account. Now go to your email account and click on the download link send by atmel.
After downloading is completed then double-click on the installation file to install atmel studio. If you have got already installed Visual Studio then it will not install or if you do not have visual studio install on your desktop then first it install it.  Now you just click on next button till installation won't be finished.
When visual studio installation is completed then it installs atmel studio.Accept the terms of the license and click next.
installing atmet studio
Now click next once again as shown.
installing atmel studio
Now once again click on next button and installing will start as shown.
installing atmel studio 6
Now wait for a while and  click on finish button in next dialogue box. Now atmel studio installation is completed and atmel studio will be installed on your desktop. 
Now you have successfully completed installation of atmel studio and ready to code your AVR microcontroller. In the next article, we set up the atmel studio to write our first code for AVR  microcontroller. Hope you like this article and if you have got any problem then comment below.

AVR Microcontroller ATmega16 - An Introduction

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ATMEL AVR microcontrollers are very popular among Engineers,Students and Hobbyist  for designing mid range embedded system projects. All embedded system needs brain that receives external signal, interprets it and perform a set of task accordingly. AVR microcontroller are best option for this purpose because AVR microcontroller have powerful instruction set and have high speed.In this article we'll discuss the basic  of ATMEL ATmega16 microcontroller.

WHICH AVR I USE 

difference between avr microcontrollers
AVR Features
ATMEL AVR microcontrollers are available in the market in many varieties. But most popular and used AVR microcontrollers are ATmega8, Atmega16 and ATmega32. All these microcontrollers are belongs to ATMEL mega family. There are no difference between avr microcontroller. They only differs in memory size and Price.
Nomenclature of Atmega uCs

atmel avr microcontroller


Atmega16 Pin Configuration

atmega16 pin configuration
Pin Configuration
Pin 10 and 11 : These pins are available for the power supply of uC. Atmega16 works at 5V.

Pin 9 : This pin is used for Reset the uC. It is an active low pin means its gets activated when you give it high signal.

Pin 30 and 32 : Pin 30 is analog Vcc. Atmega16 has features of analog to digital converter. This pin is used to gives power externally to analog circuit. Pin 32 is analog reference pin. This pin is also used for ADC purpose.

Pin 12 and 13 : By default ATmega26 works at 1 MHz internal frequency. We used this pin to connect an external crystal oscillator for getting higher frequency and clock pulses.

Pin 1-8 (PORT B) : These 8 pin of ATmega16 uC are known as PORTB. These pins are I/O pin that means all pins are capable of getting input as well as giving output.

Pin 33-40(PORT A) : These pins are known as PORTA. PORTA can be used for ADC purpose. If PORTA is not used for ADC purpose then its serves as 8-bit bidirectional I/O PORT.

Pin 22-29(PORT C) : This is 8-bit bidirectional I/O port known as PORT C. All pins of PORT C have internal pull-up resisters.

Pin 14-21 (PORT D) :
This is also 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors. PORTD also has some additional features for serial communication, interprets, PWM and timer.

Datasheet: 

Now we have got some basic knowledge about Atmega16 uC. If you want to learn anything else about the ATmega16 uC then you can refer to its Datasheet. Datasheet contains all the information about uC like its behavior,bit setting, actual working etc.